Each berry usually contains two seeds, but 5–10% of the berries have only one; these are called Peaberries, this species is rare and expensive, and it is believed to increase libido.

Beans from different countries or regions can usually be distinguished by differences in flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee’s growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as ColombianJava (Indonesia) and Kona (Hawaii).

The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta, 75–80% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and 20% is Robusta

Arabica berries ripen in six to eight months, while Robusta take nine to eleven months.

Arabica beans consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta beans consist of 1.7–4% caffeine. Coffea Arabica normally contains about half the caffeine of Coffea Robusta, is used as an inexpensive substitute for Arabica in many commercial coffee blends.

As coffee is one of the world’s most widely consumed beverages, coffee beans are a major cash crop and an important export product. It is the top agricultural export for numerous countries and is among the world’s largest legal agricultural exports.

Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Consequently, the markets for fair trade coffee and organic coffee are expanding.

Health Benefits of Coffee :

  1. Can heal Parkinson’s Disease, Liver Cancer, Prostate Cancer.
  2. Coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of death, reduced risk of death by all disease causes.
  3. Drink moderate amounts of coffee had a lower rate of heart failure.
  4. Habitual coffee consumption was associated with improved vascular function.
  5. Cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease and stroke, is less likely with three of non-decaffeinated coffee per day.
  6. Moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, on long-term consumption inhibits cognitive decline during aging or lowers the risk of some forms of cancer.
  7. Every additional cup of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumed without sugar in a day was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.
  8. Coffee is slightly acidic and can have a stimulating effect on humans because of its caffeine content.

Drinking coffee seems to be generally safe within usual levels of intake, possibly excluding women at increased risk of fracture.

Caffeine withdrawal from chronic use (heavy caffeine users) causes consistent effects typical of physical dependence, including headaches, mood changes and the possibility of reduced cerebral blood flow.

Nutrion in coffee : Nonvolatile Alkaloids, Proteins, Amino Acids, Carbohydrate, Nonvolatile Chlorogenic Acids, Volatile Compounds. There are significant contents : Magnesium, vitamin B, Niacin and Riboflavin, and 212 mg of Caffeine per 100 grams of grounds.

Processing :

The flowers are followed by oval berries of about 1.5 cm (0.6 in). When immature they are green, and they ripen to yellow, then crimson, before turning black on drying. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked by hand, processed, and dried.

After picking, green coffee is processed by one of two methods—the dry process method, simpler and less labor-intensive as the berries can be strip picked.

And the wet process method, which incorporates fermentation into the process and yields a mild coffee.

The seeds are fermented to remove the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the seed. When the fermentation is finished, the seeds are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue.  

The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is natural. In this method, the pulped and fermented coffee is spread thinly, which allows the air to pass on all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand. In this method the drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely.

Next, the coffee is sorted, and labeled as green coffee.

The sorted beans are then stored in 60 or 70 kg sacks called sisal bags that help the beans retain moisture for a longer period of time.  The storage time cannot exceed one year for the beans to be considered a current crop. If the green bean of coffee remains in storage for longer than a year, it is considered old crop, and is less valuable because of its drier state.

An Asian coffee known as Kopi Luwak undergoes a peculiar process made from coffee berries eaten by the Asian civet, passing through its digestive tract, with the beans eventually harvested from feces. Coffee brewed from this process is among the most expensive in the world. Kopi Luwak coffee is said to have uniquely rich, slightly smoky aroma and flavor with hints of chocolate, resulting from the action of digestive enzymes breaking down bean proteins to facilitate partial fermentation.

Decaffeination :

Also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all involve either soaking the reen seeds in hot water (often called the “Swiss water process”)or steaming them.

Roasting :

The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense.

The actual roasting begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), one of these oils, caffeol, is created at about 200 °C (392 °F), which is largely responsible for coffee’s aroma and flavor. While still in the bean, more caffeine breaks down above 235 °C (455 °F).

Grading roasted beans : light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark.

Roast characteristics :

  1. Darker roasts are generally bolder because they have less fiber content and a more sugary flavor.
  2. Lighter roasts have a more complex and therefore perceived stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times.

It is easy to spot truly fresh beans; just look for a glossy appearance due to their oils still escaping from the beans. There are a couple of exceptions to the glossy bean rule:

  1. Lighter roasts will have a less glossy appearance due to not being roasted as long but should still have a dull shininess to
  2. them.Beans that have undergone the Swiss Water Decaffeination process will have very little shininess.

Another indicator of fresh roasting is in the packaging. Freshly roasted beans emit gases, if you receive a sealed bag see a valve, they’re fresh.

Storage :

  1. Stored in an airtight container made of ceramic, glass, or non-reactive metal, a nifty solution is a ceramic coffee canister.
  2. Packaged of roasted coffee usually has a one-way valve which prevents air from entering while allowing the coffee to release gases.
  3. Stored away from moisture, heat, and light.
  4. Avoid steam and keep them away from brewers, stoves, etc.
  5. tored in tight jar.
  6. Storage of coffee in the refrigerator is not recommended due to the presence of moisture which can cause deterioration.
  7. Storing coffee at room temperature is a simple and convenient method of storage.

Coffee is hygroscopic, this means that coffee will absorb the air around it, as well as any odors and any tastes in the air.
Raw coffee bean (green coffee bean) must be kept away from human place, because its smell can trigger cancer if human breathe its smell in long time.